(Pubblichiamo l’intervento di un nuovo nostro collaboratore dagli Usa)
I have been asked several times to explain the process in which the American government, and others, were able to effectively manipulate Italy’s social, economic and military status, and determine its course of history over the last 60 plus years. Today Italy is at the verge of a precipice; an empty shell devoid of most moral virtues, with no sovereignty aspirations; a country that has been pillaged for years by relentless attacks directed towards its history, military, culture, language, finances, borders and politics. Attacks conducted by powerful internal, but most of all, external interest groups, aided by the complacency of an inept, incompetent, corrupt and easily manipulated Italian political class. Sometimes these vultures operate under the effigy of the American flag in the form of the American government and its representatives. Sometimes they operate under the effigy of speculators, in the form of hedge fund investors, transnational corporations, financial institutions and the IMF. Sometimes it’s under the banner of global entities such as the EU, UN, G7 or G20, proffering disgraceful international treaties that our shameless politicians have signed onto over the years. It seems to be a several-step colonization process, a well calculated manipulation of Italian internal affairs. I would like to focus specifically on one of the turning points in Italian history that helps to understand more clearly the climate that Italy finds itself in today.
The years immediately following the end of World War II were crucial in the struggle for subjugation and control of Italy. Hundreds of pages of declassified American intelligence help shed some light on many of the political, military and social events of the last few decades. The period preceding and following the election of 1948 saw the implementation of a long-term plan to extinguish once and for all any “extremist” reactionary ideology in Italy, Fascist, and for the most part, Communist; a mission that the American State Department took seriously and which began after the American military occupation was completed at the end of the war.
After the fall of the De Gasperi government, in a top secret document dated May 26, 1947, American intelligence highlights their concern for the rise of Communism in Europe, particularly in France and Italy. The report addressed to the Secretary of State is titled, “Italian and French Struggle Against Communism,” and states that “Conditions in France and Italy have now reached a point where the struggle between Communist and non-Communist forces appears to have entered a decisive state.” The concern of American intelligence for the political climate in Italy, particularly the weakness of the “democratic forces,” is clear. The Americans fear that these so called “democratic forces” are unable to counter the Communist tide. The inability of the De Gasperi coalition to deal with the financial crisis, along with the Communist “problem” had led to the resignation of his cabinet. The Americans feared that this situation would clear the path for a Communist takeover of Italy. For the American State Department, this is considered an unacceptable possibility. They believe a victory by the Communist party would have a domino effect on other European countries, particularly France, where Premier Ramadier was dealing with a Communist problem as well. The report continues by pointing to “…the fact that the Communists have used their participation in the government to infiltrate every state administrative organization and to sabotage every effort toward the effective solution of Italy’s problems.” To make matters worse for the Americans is the increasing success of the Communist Party. “An indication of the advance of the Communists in Italy is that their reported membership increased from 1,708,000 to 2,166,000 in 1946. With their Socialist allies they have gained control of the municipal governments in Genoa, Turin, Milan, Florence , Bologna. They confidently expect to consolidate their grip on the labor movement, having elected 70% of the delegates to the Convention of the Labor Federation being held next month. The measure of their success if reflected by a greater display of confidence, a growing intransigence of important issues, more open use of intimidation and increasing threats of resort to violence if necessary to gain their ends. …’The Ramadier Experiment,’ In France, where Premier Ramadier has taken a firm stand against the Communists, the situation appears somewhat more favorable than in Italy. It excludes both the Communists on the extreme left and reactionary elements on the right, and it combines the fundamentally democratic forces of the center and left which still command the support of the French Parliament and people despite a general public feeling of disillusionment with government fumbling and incoherence. Furthermore, its component elements are oriented toward us through a mutual belief in liberty and human decency and through deep fear and distrust of ruthless Soviet imperialism. Finally, there is the extremely important fact that the government is essentially Socialist and is headed by a Socialist. It therefore has the support of substantial elements of the vital trade union movement and if it succeeds, it will unquestionably gain increased working class support.” Obviously the situation is alarming for the American government. The formula appears to be going against the interests of the United States; De Gasperi has resigned under pressure from the American government, due to the presence in his cabinet of undesirable subjects and his inability to deal with the problems facing the country. Meanwhile the Communists are gaining ground positioning themselves strongly in the political arena and in the labor movement.
This report was followed by a second report dated September 15, 1947. It focuses on the leadership of Togliatti, the leader of the Italian Communist party, who mentions the possibility to “abandon democratic methods for the conquest of power and resort to violence in its efforts to overthrow Premier de Gasperi’s moderate government. In a meeting of partisans at Modena, Togliatti admitted that the Communists had 30,000 well-armed partisans at their disposal and threatened that if the government did not give prompt proof of its democratic spirit the Communists would “have to fight.” This alarming situation is precipitated by the conjunctions of several negative factors. “The imminent withdrawal of Allied troops from Italy, has increased the possibility of direct Communist action to seize power and has rendered more effective other Communist methods for taking control of the country…In carrying out their offensive, the Italian Communists have open to them two main courses of action: 1) sudden overthrow of the De Gasperi Government by Communist-sponsored armed force, following withdrawal of Allied troops; and 2) Communist-inspired general strikes to paralyze the important north Italian industrial area, and thus seriously interfere with future implementation of the program for European recovery.” The recovery program, which is mentioned in the report, is better known as the Marshall Plan. Already in 1947, the US government had distributed billions of dollars to the European states. In Italy, where general labor strikes had threatened to bring the country to a standstill and possibly seize power by violent means, the US government used the relief fund as a tool to influence and redirect power away from the Communist parties. At a speech given at Harvard University in June 1947, Secretary of State Marshall stated that the US government was ready to provide financial assistance to Europe under the condition that the European nations would come together and devise a long-range plan for their economic recovery. In April 1948, the US Congress approved the Foreign Assistance Act just in time to influence the election in Italy. Millions of dollars were provided. In the same month of the same year, on April 16, 1948, two days before the Italian elections, sixteen non-communist European states signed an agreement establishing the Organization for European Economic Cooperation, the precursor of the EU.
The report then proceeded to spell out a possible scenario of a hostile Communist takeover. “Although the Italian Army and Carabinieri have some 200,000 troops to oppose Communist guerrilla estimated to number as many as 50,000, the addition of partially-armed and trained Italian and Yugoslav Communists and fellow-travelers could appreciably increase the strength of the revolutionists. Furthermore, redeployment of Italian armed forces to protect the Yugoslav frontier following the withdrawal of Allied forces would remove certain troop units from important Communist-dominated centers in north Italy. Recent developments within the Communist Party in Italy may increase the likelihood of direct military action. There has long been a division within the party between the Togliatti faction, which has favored peaceful political infiltration, and the pro-revolutionary group headed by Luigi Longo… The recent departure of eight members of the ‘direct action’ group for Moscow may indicate closer coordination between this element and the USSR and consequent intensification of Communist para-military activity. Togliatti’s last speech may mean that he will go along with the revolutionary faction.” Even though the situation appears to be alarming and is forcing the American government to implement a long-term plan and a short-term plan to deal with the communist threat, there is also some factors that give Americans hope that the revolutionary takeover of the country might be averted, and particularly, the report points out a couple of factors that might go against the communists. “Two factors militate against Communist revolution in Italy. The USSR is unwilling to support directly such a step because it might involve war with the US. An even more potent reason against it is that the failure of the European recovery program, or even failure of the US to provide Italy with emergency wheat and dollars during this critical interim period, might deliver Italy into the hands of the Communists by popular vote at the next national elections. It would therefore seem more logical for the Italian Communists to await the outcome of the elections, scheduled for April 1948, before using revolutionary tactics.”
What solution was presented to the American State Department to deal with the Communist threat? “The De Gasperi Government must cope in some way with the desperate economic crisis before the September 23 meeting of the Constituent Assembly, when a vote of no confidence proposed by Left Wing Socialist Nenni will be discussed. Whichever course the communists follow, their chances of success are excellent unless the De Gasperi Government can ameliorate the economic crisis by procuring sufficient wheat or through successful operation of the European economic recovery program.”
A report, dated March 29, 1948, speaks of the upcoming election due to be held on April 18. “Crucial Elections in Italy: On April 18 the Italian people will go to the polls in a national election the results of which will be of vital importance to all the free countries of western Europe. There is only one real issue involved in the elections—whether Italy will remain a free country or will be subjected to a totalitarian dictatorship controlled from Moscow….Communist control of Italy would be extremely serious for the free nations of Europe and for our policy of support for free Europe. It would facilitate Communist penetration of France, Spain and North Africa, would weaken the position of Greece and Turkey in their resistance to the USSR, would turn the southern flank of the western forces in central Europe, and would give the USSR a powerful strategic position astride the Mediterranean.” The report goes on to mention that US support for the “democratic elements” is imperative and that the US Intelligence Service is “…doing everything possible to support the moderate democratic elements in Italy without giving the impression of interfering in Italian internal affairs. We have made it clear to the Italians that if they choose to vote into power a government in which the dominant political force would be a party whose hostility to ERP (European Recovery Program) has been frequently proclaimed, we could only consider this as evidence of Italy’s desire to disassociate itself from ERP and we would have to conclude that Italy had removed itself from the benefits of ERP. In our information program we are doing everything possible to let the Italian people know that while the choice is theirs, in our opinion it is the choice between freedom and dictatorship. We have demonstrated our support for a democratic Italy by proposing, in concert with the British and French, that the Big Four and Italy negotiate a protocol to the Italian peace treaty providing for the return of the Free Territory of Trieste to Italian Sovereignty. We are now considering taking the initiative in reopening the question of Italy’s admission to UN, which has hitherto been prevented by Soviet opposition.”
What does it mean exactly by “doing everything possible?” Several steps were taken to prevent the Communists from winning the election and assuring the success of the De Gasperi party. Besides those steps mentioned in the report above, there were: Redeployment of British and American forces into Italy with navy ships anchored in virtually all of Italy’s major ports; a military occupation with foreign military forces imbedded on Italian soil, which continues to this day with the presence of the US Military, NATO and ONU occupying strategic places within the Italian peninsula; the reorganization of Italian armed forces with better pay and equipment; the support of the Comitati Civici, both politically and financially; the covert funding of non-left leaning trade unions; the financial support of center parties; a mass media campaign which included millions of pieces of mail sent to Italians by American Italian immigrants pleading with them not to vote Communist; daily radio broadcasts financed by the State Department urging the Italians to chose democracy over totalitarianism; the service of Hollywood media figures such as Frank Sinatra, a practice which continues to this day (anyone surprised that garbage such as Lady Gaga and Angelina Jolie feel entitled to come into our home and tell us, the Italians, how to vote and to act?); the open threat by the Justice Department that every Italian who votes Communist will not be allowed to enter the United States; the distribution of American grain to Italy; the American Ambassador, James Dunn, and his relentless effort by travelling throughout Italy to warn the Italians of the evils of Communism; and foremost, the explicit threat made by the Secretary of State George Catlett Marshall on March 20 at a speech held at Berkeley University, one month prior to the election, where he stated that financial support to Italy will be ceased in the case of an electoral victory of the Communists.
The result of these efforts were encouraging to the State Department, and a report dated April 12, 1948, at the eve of the election states: “Prospects that the Italian Communist Party will obtain a sufficiently large plurality in the April 18 elections to ensure Communist or left-wing Socialist representation in the next Italian Government have sharply diminished. Concurrently, the party’s capabilities for successful large-scale insurrection without active military assistance from Yugoslavia have been considerably reduced. Unless the Communists receive substantial outside aid, the government now appears sufficiently strong to prevent its overthrow by force and to put down large-scale rebellion.”
On April 18, 1948, the elections were held and the Christian Democrats took 48% of the vote, while the left coalition unexpectedly pulled a poor 31%. A report dated April 26, 1948 highlights the defeat suffered by the Communists in the Italian elections, which: “…has further reduced Communist capabilities for assuming power and has vastly improved the morale and confidence of the anti-Communists in both Italy and France. An increasing number of left-wing European Socialists and fellow-travellers may now abandon their Communist association.” The Communist threat was, for the moment, repelled but the civil unrest and the political battles did not end with the elections. It continued fiercely throughout that spring and summer, peaking with the attempted assassination of Palmiro Togliatti on July 14, 1948. After the elections, Winston Churchill declared that the defeat of the Communist party in Italy was an event of historic proportions. He said he was glad to see Italy regain its friendship with Great Britain and the United States.
The scare of the election of 1948 had the American intelligence devise a long-term plan to deal with the Communist threat once and for all. Important long-term decisions were made. Among these were the infiltration and neutralization of the Italian Communist party, the implementation and creation of a stay-behind militia (GLADIO), and the reversion to covert operation and support for assassination of political enemies of “democracy,” American style.
The Truman doctrine was taken word for word, when in March 1947, the American president delivered a speech to the American Congress which stated that, “We must assist free people to work out their own destiny in their own way.” He promised that the United States “will support free people who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.” The same Doctrine was fully embraced by Prime Minister De Gasperi on his trip to Washington in the beginning of 1947, which resulted in the exit from his government coalition of the Socialist and Communist leaders Nenni and Togliatti, effectively ending the collaboration of the anti-fascist forces that had somehow worked together since the war, united under a common cause. On that trip De Gasperi adhered to the model of a western liberal-capitalist form of society in exchange for financial and alimentary aids. Italy fully embraced the concept of western “democracy.” The words of John Adams (the second American president) resound more truthfully today then ever when he said, “Democracy… while it lasts is more bloody than either aristocracy or monarchy. Remember, democracy never lasts long. It soon wastes, exhausts, and murders itself. There is never a democracy that did not commit suicide…”
At the dusk of western civilization, Italy is at the forefront, fast entering darkness. These last decades of “democracy” have given us immigration, globalization, privatization and the alienation of our culture and traditions. Italy is now a dying nation, stripped and deprived of her sovereignty. For what was once the birth place of the Roman Empire, The Renaissance, The Resurgence, Piero della Francesca,Leonardo Da Vinci, Michelangelo, Galileo Galilei, Machiavelli, Garibaldi, Vespucci, Mazzini, Marco Polo, Cristoforo Colombo, Verdi, and etc. is now the homeland of Berlusconi, Ventola, Prodi, Bossi, Di Pietro, Bersani, Napolitano, il grande fratello, le veline, rave parties and so on. Please join me now to observe a moment of silence for our country and remember what the Romans used to say: “Non auro sed ferro recuperanda est Patria.”